When you say MIDI keyboard you're talking about a variety of electric or digital keyboards out there. Unlike before where only special keyboards were able to do MIDI, nowadays almost all modern electric keyboards are MIDI compatible. You can't miss them - they're the ones with the MIDI In & Out slots in the back.
There are basically two types of electronic keyboards - the controller and the piano types
1) The controller is typically what many would associate with the term MIDI keyboard. While it has keys you won't hear any sound when you press them. You need to have a computer running a digital audio workstation (DAW) software to convert the MIDI impulses to sound.
Because they don't have any speakers controllers are generally smaller and cheaper than their regular piano type counterparts. This makes them versatile and portable and can fit in almost any space you can think of.
2) The piano or personal keyboard type has its own build in sound system - what that means is that unlike the controller, when you press the keys sound comes out. You don't have to connect them to a computer in order to hear anything.
The advantage of such a system is that you can set it up anywhere and not have to worry about having a computer and the required software available. Their disadvantage often tends to be their size due to the internal sound system - you may find it somewhat difficult to set up if you have a small studio and especially so in front of your computer.
Otherwise known as the number of keys you would like in the keyboard. A MIDI keyboard comes in a wide range of number keys -88, 76, 61, 49, 37, and 25. The high number ones are the big boys and are usually the piano type keyboards. The lower ones tend to be the controllers. If you don't play the piano then the smaller number of keys won't be a problem for you. However, if you want that piano feel then get the 88 or at the very least the 76 so you have a wider option to play from.
Speaking of that piano feel the action of the keys will help determine that. Full weighted keys offer the resistance and spring-back of pianos. Synth action has no resistance whatsoever and the keys spring back quickly too. Semi-weighted keys are the compromise - they have less resistance than full weighted ones and are slower to spring back than the synth ones.
Other determining factors include how you will use the unit. If you're always on the go then maybe a small portable unit may be for you. Same is true if you don't really have much space in your home studio. On the other hand if you're into live performances where space and set-up aren't a problem then maybe a bigger unit with the full set of keys may be what the doctor ordered. Price can also come in when choosing your MIDI keyboard but with the way things are going the differences can be negligible except perhaps with the really high end ones.
Check out useful tips in buying Midi Keyboards [http://www.midi-keyboard.net/]. Know what other users say in the Midi Keyboard Reviews [http://www.midi-keyboard.net/] section.
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